6310 Reading Notes
Online resource for DCC text is here
Model diagram on Gliffy is here

DCC Chapter One

  • Intro to Instr Design

Definitions:
  • system "a set of interrelated parts, all of which work together toward a defined goal"
  • goal What you want the learners to be able to do when they have completed the instruction.
  • objective Skill to be learned

Relationship to instruction? Inst process itself cn be viewed as a system, w/ the purpose of bringing about learning
  1. learners
  2. instructor
  3. instructional materials
  4. learning environment
DCC includes behavioral, cognitive and constructivist elements from psych.

*Components of the Model*
  • Identify Instructional Goals - what you want learners to be able to do when they have completed your instruction.
  • Conduct Instructional Analysis - determine what skills, knowledge & attitudes (_entry behaviors_) are req'd of learners to be able to begin instruction
  • Analyze Learners & Contexts - Learners' current skills, prefs and attitudes are determined + char of the inst setting & setting in which the skills will eventually be used
  • Write Performance Objectives - specific statements: 1) skills to be learned, 2) conditions in which skill must be performed & 3) criteria for successful performance
  • Develop Assessment Instruments - relate the kind of skills described in the obj to what the assessment req's
  • Develop Instructional Strategy - 1) pre-instr. activities 2) presentation of content 3) learner participation 4) assessment 5) follow-through activities
  • Develop & Select Instructional Materials - 1) guidance for learners 2) instructional materials 3) assessments
  • Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction - 1) 1-1 eval 2) small group eval 3) field-trial eval
  • Revise Instruction - 1) summarize and interpret data from evals 2) identify difficulties exper'd by learners 3) relate difficulties to instruction _may require restatment of objs and assessments_
  • Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation - usually involves and independent evaluator

Reasons to use the Systems Approach
  1. the focus on what learners are to know or be able to do when instru is complete
  2. relationship btwn the instr strategy and the desired learning outcomes
  3. it's an empirical and replicable process


DCC Chapter Two

  • Front-End Analysis to Identify Instructional Goal/s

Four methods to identify instructional goals:
  • subject-matter expert (SME)
  • content outline
  • administrative mandate
  • performance technology

Performance Analysis + Needs Assessment = Identify the Problem
"Performance analysis : the use of analytical tools for identifying organizational performance problems and developing the most appropriate solutions" I.e. to acquire info in order to verify problems and id solutions.

3 components of needs assessment logic 1) desired status 2) actual status 3) the gap between 1 & 2.
I.e. desired status - actual status = need
Job Analysis (Task analysis): process of gathering, analyzing & synthesizing descriptions of what people do in their jobs.
  • performance analysis
  • needs assessment
  • instructional goal is stated
Instructional goals: description of what learners will be able to do, but must include who the learners are, the context in which they will use the skills and the tools that will be available.
A complete goal statement should describe: the learners. What learners will be able to do in the performance context, the perf context in which the skills will be applied, the tools that will be available to the learners in the perf context.
Three concerns: 1) will the instr solve the prob? 2) are the goals acceptable to the approvers? 3) sufficient people and time to complete the devlop of the instr for this goal?

Five Steps for de-fuzzying a goal
  1. Write the goal on paper
  2. Brainstorm behaviors learners wld demonstrate to reflect their achiev of the goal
  3. Sort through the stated behaviors and select those that best represent the goal
  4. Incorporate the behav into a statement that describes what the learner will be able to do
  5. Evaluate the statement for its clarity and relat'ip to the orig. fuzzy notion
cf. p. 31-33 in DCC



DCC Chapter Three

  • Conducting Goal Analysis